US ‘Antifa’ Groups

'Antifa' groups operate in a mostly decentralized way but share a belief that they're resisting fascist ideology, primarily through protests and counterdemonstrations against far-right extremism, utilizing tactics such as doxxing, and at times criminal activity.

Neo-Confederate Ideology

'Neo-Confederate' refers to individuals or groups echoing US Confederate beliefs, emphasizing states' rights & heritage preservation, with some overlap with white supremacist ideologies.

‘Saints Culture’ is an extremist trend prevalent amongst the white supremacist movement whereby individuals who have committed extreme acts of hate-motivated violence are revered as saints.

‘Saints Culture’

The "Saints Culture" within the white supremacist movement glorifies individuals who commit hate-motivated violence, a phenomenon revitalised in online spaces.

Hizb ut-Tahrir

This article provides an explainer of Hizb ut-Tahrir to contextualise the group’s activities and ideologies and its recent proscribing as a terrorist organisation in the UK.  

Northern Ireland Related Terrorism

Northern Ireland Related Terrorism (NIRT) is an often-overlooked aspect of the broader terrorism landscape in the United Kingdom yet remains a persistent and uniquely challenging threat.

Islamophobia and anti-Muslim hatred

Islamophobia and anti-Muslim hate involve dehumanizing, expressing contempt, demonizing, harassing, threatening or inciting violence based on an individual or community's Muslim identity (or perceived identity).

Gen Z Digital Salafism

Salafism has proven attractive to Gen Z Muslims as an emerging youth counterculture. Its black-and-white views, rules-based value system, strong group identity, and provocative contrasts to the orthodoxies of the Islamic establishment resonate with this younger generation.


Rumble ist eine Videoplattform, die sich als YouTube-Alternative sieht und wegen ihrer undurchsichtigen Moderationspraxis bei Rechtsextremen beliebt ist


The video platform Rumble describes itself as a “free speech alternative” to the "Big Tech Giants”. In its quest to create a so-called 'new internet' it has attracted mainly right-wing, and sometimes extremist creators and audiences.

Moorish Sovereign Citizens

In the US, Moorish sovereign citizens are Black adherents who identify as Moors that believe they are above the rule of law because of historical ties to Morocco.


Transparency in the context of data access helps build trust, increases accountability between various stakeholders, and is crucial in gathering evidence to better inform debates and create effective change.

Data Access

Ensuring public interest researchers have meaningful data access is important for evidence gathering, decision-making & platform accountability. What do we mean by data access? Read about it in our Explainer.


Hindutva or Hindu nationalism, bears resemblance to European right-wing extremism, and has led to the harassment of minorities (Christians, Muslims, etc.) and even put interfaith couples in the crosshairs.

Commercial Disinformation

Disinformation-for-profit is an industry and business model that pushes conspiracies and polarising narratives to generate revenue.

Discord & Extremism

While Discord has primarily been a space marketed to gamers, over the years there have been multiple instances of extremist activity on the platform.

Patriot Front

Patriot Front is a white supremacist organisation that aims to restore and reshape American society along the lines of perceived post-revolutionary traditions and virtues.

The ‘Great Reset’

Misconceptions around the ‘Great Reset’, a World Economic Forum (WEF) initiative launched in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, have become a mainstay of conspiracy thinking in recent years.

‘Climate Lockdown’

The term ‘climate lockdown’ refers to a conspiratorial narrative which claims that global elites are using climate change as a pretext to restrict individual freedoms and civil liberties.

White Genocide

The “white genocide” conspiracy theory holds that there is a deliberate plot, masterminded by the Jewish people, to erase whiteness, white culture and white civilisation.

A plain blue background with the text 'The 'Groomer' slur', underneath which is text reading 'A topic explainer produced by the Institute for Strategic Dialogue'

The ‘Groomer’ Slur

The term 'Groomer' attempts to link LGBTQ+ people to pedophilia and prevent LGBTQ+ rights being enshrined in law or taught in schools.


The Groyper movement is a loose network of white nationalist activists and internet trolls who gravitate around several key online influencers.

Die Reichsbürger Bewegung

Die Reichsbürger sind eine extremistische deutsche Bewegung, deren Ideologiedurch die gemeinsame Überzeugung geeint ist, dass die Bundesrepublik Deutschland kein legitimer, souveräner Staat ist und die vom deutschen Staat verabschiedeten Gesetze und Regeln daher nicht verbindlich sind.

The Reichsbürger Movement

The Reichsbürger movement is a German conspiracy movement similar to Sovereign Citizens, claiming that the German state is illegitimate and must be resisted.

Boogaloo Movement

The Boogaloo movement is an anti-government, anti-law enforcement extremist militia movement that believes the state places too many limitations on individual liberty, and that a second civil war is necessary to push back against these intrusions.

Sovereign Citizens

The Sovereign Citizens movement is a heterogenous anti-government ideology that originated in the US, and adherents are united in their belief that the US government illegitimately rules over them.


An Incel ("involuntary celibate") is a member of an online subculture of people whose sense of identity is forged around a perceived inability to form sexual or romantic relationships. Incel ideology is violent, rooted in the hatred of women, and forms part of what has been dubbed the “manosphere”.

The ‘Manosphere’

The “manosphere” is an umbrella term that refers to a number of interconnected misogynistic communities. This ISD Explainer explores the more extreme and divisive proponents of these online communities.

The ‘New World Order’

The 'New World Order' conspiracy theory argues that a shadowy elite force is trying to implement a totalitarian world government.


Accelerationism is an ideology focussed on the need for societal collapse to preserve the white race against threats like multiculturalism and immigration. The term is used by extremist and white supremacist groups.

The ‘Great Replacement’

The 'Great Replacement' conspiracy theory claims that Western and majority white countries are under threat from immigration and birth rates. It has inspired multiple terror attacks including the 2019 Christchurch mosque shootings.

The Order of Nine Angles

A decentralised, Satanist, neo-Nazi organization that has spread and become increasingly influential among accelerationist neo-Nazi groups in recent years.